Elementary knowledge

Amanita muscaria (and one different associated choice, Amanita pantherina) is a mushroom of the agaricales order that appears in very broad habitats of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. It grows every in low altitudes and extreme mountainous areas, significantly in coniferous forests equal to fir and black pine, along with in beech and birch forests. It typically appears in the middle of the end of summer season season months and is especially prevalent in autumn.

Its look is well-known by the crimson shade of the cap, lined with white dots, along with the white stem.

This mushroom includes two psychoactive alkaloids, ibotenic acid and muscimol, together with many various alkaloids. It has been used since antiquity as an intoxicating substance along with in shamanic contexts and divination.

The establish fliegenpilz shop comes from the paralyzing impression it has on some bugs. It’s acknowledged by completely different names equal to hongo matamoscas in Spanish, falsa oronjareig bord or farinera borda in Catalan, and fly agaric in English.

Origin/Historic previous

Historic info equal to cave work, picket carvings and sculptures counsel that the psychoactive outcomes of A. muscaria have been acknowledged since historic events on all continents, and associated practices have been seen in regards to the utilization of A. muscaria in groups every geographically and culturally distant. A. muscaria has been used for non secular, divination, therapeutic and social capabilities.

The first proof of the utilization of A. muscaria as an intoxicant relies on linguistic analyses of North Asian languages from 4000 BC, throughout which the roots of the phrases “drunkenness” and Amanita muscaria look like the similar. Polychromatic work have been found on Saharan rocks relationship once more to the Paleolithic interval; depictions of what look like mushrooms of the Amanita genus, possibly of the muscaria species.

The fungus grows naturally throughout the highlands of Mesoamerica and some mushroom myths and sculptures counsel the utilization of A. muscaria in Guatemala and southern Mexico on the time of creation of the Mayan civilization, spherical 1500 – 1000 BC. Some symbolic similarities have been current in Guatemalan and Asian populations concerning the concept that the mushroom is born in places the place lightning strikes. These parallels might very nicely be outlined by the migrations that attainable occurred from the Asian continent to the Americas by the Bering Strait, thus the information concerning the utilization of A. muscaria would have been relayed.

There could also be further proof of its use in North America by the Dogrib Athabasca tribes throughout the Mackenzie Mountains in Canada along with throughout the ceremonial practices of the Ojibwa and Ahnishinuabeg Indians throughout the Lake Michigan area of the USA, who referred to A. muscaria by the establish of miskwedo and whose practices have survived until at least the highest of the 20th century.

The first Western report on the utilization of A. muscaria was made by Filip Johan von Strahlenberg, a Swedish soldier who, in 1730, was imprisoned for twelve years in Siberia. He seen how A. muscaria was used as an intoxicant in shamanic contexts. At current the Ostyak and Vogul tribes, west of Siberia, and the Kamchadal, Koryak, and Chukchi tribes throughout the east, proceed to utilize A. muscariaof their rites.

These Siberian tribes relied fully on A. muscaria as an intoxicating substance until the introduction of alcohol by the Russians. They collected the Amanita, dried it throughout the photo voltaic and consumed it each complete, in a water or reindeer milk extraction, or mixed it with plant juices to sweeten its style.

These tribes moreover exhibited the observe of consuming the urine of people who had eaten A. muscaria, as they realized that the alkaloids of the Amanita are eradicated unchanged by way of urine, so that they proceed to be energetic and may be reused for as a lot as four or 5 cycles.

As for Amanita pantherina, some native North American groups use it for magico-religious capabilities throughout the western part of the state of Washington.

Chemical composition and dosage

Amanita muscaria includes a extreme quantity of alkaloids and its pharmacology is sophisticated and by no means completely understood. In all probability essentially the most associated alkaloids are ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscarine and muscazone.

For some time, muscarine was believed to be the psychoactive alkaloid of the Amanita, nonetheless in 1964 unbiased researchers in Japan, England, and Switzerland isolated ibotenic acid and muscimol, and located their psychoactive properties. Muscarine is the alkaloid answerable for undesired outcomes and the feeling of intoxication (discomfort, upset stomach and vomiting).

The quantity and proportion of alkaloids contained throughout the mushroom depends on a variety of parts. Mushrooms collected at larger altitudes appear to have larger concentrations of ibotenic acid/muscimol, and other people collected at lower altitudes, additional muscarine.

Ibotenic acid is a fairly unstable molecule, which is remodeled into muscimol by publicity to temperature and completely different parts. Thus, the dry mushroom is commonly additional extremely efficient than the modern specimen, on account of in the middle of the drying course of the ibotenic acid is decarboxylated into muscimol. Ibotenic acid has stimulant outcomes, whereas muscimol has additional depressant outcomes.

  • Dosage of ibotenic acid: this alkaloid causes psychoactive ends in doses of 50 – 100 mg.
  • Dosage of muscimol: equal doses are throughout the ranges of 10 – 15 mg. Thus muscimol is stronger than ibotenic acid.
  • Dosage of Amanita muscaria: the concentrations of alkaloids are extraordinarily variable counting on the height and specific ecosystem the place the mushroom grows, so the dosage could also be very troublesome to seek out out and the doses indicated listed below are merely orientative.

Low dose: a small or medium measurement cap.
Frequent dose: from 1 to 3 medium measurement caps.
Extreme dose: 2 or additional medium measurement caps.


Every muscimol and ibotenic acid have psychotropic outcomes. After oral administration, the outcomes take pretty a really very long time to appear, and it typically takes 2 to 3 hours to reach the utmost outcomes. The size of the outcomes is about 6 or eight hours, counting on the dose.

The character of the outcomes may be extraordinarily variable, moreover counting on the dose, along with the variability and personal variations.

Outcomes may embrace:

  • A major half by which there’s stimulation, elevated energy and muscular vigor (not always).
  • A second half by which there’s decay, tranquility and drowsiness.
  • A third half throughout which the psychedelic outcomes appear and there may be experiences of a mystical nature, consciousness of non-ordinary realities, blissful or terrifying sensations.
  • Seen distortions.
  • Lack of steadiness.
  • Muscle spasms.
  • Experiences of a dream-like nature.
  • Dizziness.
  • Seen and auditory impairment.
  • Concern concentrating on exterior duties.
  • Sensation of macropsia and/or micropsia (perceiving objects as each very large or very small).
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Every A. muscaria and A. phanterina embody ibotenic acid and muscimol, although each species includes these energetic substances in a number of concentrations, so the intoxication may also be completely completely different. A. muscaria includes additional excitatory ibotenic acid and fewer of the depressant muscimol as compared with A. pantherina. Due to this, poisonings with A. muscaria present with additional confusion and agitation as compared with A. pantherina poisonings, which largely present with comatose indicators.

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